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Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS)

Participants: Henrik Anckarsäter, Eva Carlström, Christopher Gillberg, Carina Gillberg, Clara Gumpert, Nora Kerekes, Paul Lichtenstein, Sebastian Lundström & Maria Råstam.

Background: The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS) emanates from the Swedish Twin Registry at Karolinska Institutet, but was co-founded by Professor Gillberg.

Method: Since 2003, all parents of all nine-year-old twins in Sweden, are invited to participate in a telephone interview with the Autism-Tics, AD/HD and other Comorbidities inventory (A-TAC, Hansson et al 2005, Larson et al 2010). The A-TAC was originally designed at the GNC, and today A-TAC data exist for over 29 000 twins, making CATSS the largest twin study of neurodevelopmental/ESSENCE problems in the world. In conjunction with their fifteenth and eighteenth birthdays the twins (and their parents) are contacted again. This longitudinal design makes it possible to draw inferences about causal relationships, including whether or not problem indicators at age nine years predict outcomes at ages 15 or 18 years.

Results: The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS) is an ongoing prospective longitudinal study. During the last years the CATSS has yielded several high-impact publications investigating, among other things, heritability and comorbidity with other ESSENCE for autism spectrum disorders (Lichtenstein et al 2010) and continuities between autism spectrum disorders and autistic-like traits in the general population (Lundström et al 2012). In addition, a review article about the CATSS was published in 2011 (Anckarsäter et al 2011) where detailed information about the CATSS and all of its substudies can be found.


Alabaf, S., Gillberg, C., Lundström, S., Lichtenstein, P., Råstam, M., & Anckarsäter H. (2019). Physical health in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 49, 96-97.

Taylor, M., Larsson, H., Gillberg, C., Lichtenstein, P., & Lundström, S. (2019). Investigating the childhood symptom profile of community-based individuals diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder as adults. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 60, 259-266.

Arvidsson, O., Gillberg, C., Lichtenstein, P., & Lundström, S. (2018). Secular changes in the symptom level of clinically diagnosed autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 59, 744-751.

Mårland, C., Lichtenstein, P., Deglínnocenti, A., Larson, T., Råstam, M., Anckarsäter, H., Gillberg, C., … Lundström, S. (2017). The Autism-Tics, ADHD and other Comorbidities inventory (A-TAC): previous and predictive validity. BMC Psychiatry, 17, 403.

Taylor, M., Gillberg, C., Lichtenstein, P., & Lundström, S. (2017). Etiological influences on the stability of autistic traits from childhood to early adulthood: evidence from a twin study. Molecular Autism, 8:5.

Gillberg, C., Lundström, S., Fernell, E., Nilsson, G., & Neville, B. (2017). Febrile Seizures and Epilepsy: Association With Autism and Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders in the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden.Pediatric Neurology, 74, 80-86.e2.

Cederlöf, M., Pettersson, E., Sariaslan, A., Larsson H., Östberg, P., Kelleher, I., Långström, N., … Lichtenstein, P. (2016). The association between childhood autistic traits and adolescent psychotic experiences is explained by general neuropsychiatric problems. Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 171B, 153-159.

Kerekes, N., Tajnia, A., Lichtenstein,P., Lundström, S., Anckarsäter, H., Nilsson,T., & Råstam., M. (2015). Neurodevelopmental problems and extremes in BMI. PeerJ, 3:e1024.

Lundström, S., Reichenberg, A., Anckarsäter, H., Lichtenstein, P., & Gillberg, C. (2015). Autism phenotype versus registered diagnosis in Swedish children: prevalence trends over 10 years in general population samples. BMJ, 350, h1961.

Lundström, S., Reichenberg, A., Melke, J., Råstam, M., Kerekes, N., Lichtenstein, P., ... Anckarsäter, H. (2015). Autism Spectrum Disorders and Coexisting Disorders in a Nationwide Swedish Twin Study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 56, 702-710.

Törn, P., Pettersson, E., Lichtenstein, P., Anckarsäter, H., Lundström, S., Hellner-Gumpert, C., ... Halldner, H. (2015). Childhood neurodevelopmental problems and adolescent bully victimization: population-based, prospective twin study in Sweden. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 24, 1049-1059.

Jonsson, L., Anckarsäter, H., Zettergren, A., Westberg, L., Walum, H., Lundström, S., … Melke, J. (2014). Association between ASMT and autistic-like traits in children from a Swedish nationwide cohort. Psychiatric Genetics, 24, 21-27.

Larson, T., Kerekes, N., Selinus, E.N., Lichtenstein, P., Gumpert, C.H., Anckarsäter, H., ... Lundström, S. (2014). Reliability of the Autism - Tics, ADHD and other Comorbidities inventory (A-TAC) in a test-retest design. Psychological Reports, 114, 93-103.

Magnusson, P.K., Almqvist, C., Rahman, I., Ganna, A., Viktorin, A., Walum, H., ... Lichtenstein, P. (2013). The Swedish Twin Registry: establishment of a biobank and other recent developments. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 16, 317-329.

Zettergren, A., Jonsson, L., Johansson, D., Melke, J., Lundström, S., Anckarsäter, H., ... Westberg, L. (2013). Associations between polymorphisms in sex steroid related genes and autistic-like traits. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 38, 2575-2584.

Lundström, S., Chang, Z., Råstam, M., Gillberg, C., Larsson, H., Anckarsäter, H., & Lichtenstein P. (2012). Autism spectrum disorders and autistic like traits: similar etiology in the extreme end and the normal variation. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69, 46-52.

Anckarsäter, H., Lundström, S., Kollberg, L., Kerekes, N., Palm, C., Carlström, E., . . . Lichtenstein, P. (2011). The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS). Twin Research and Human Genetics, 14, 495-508.

Lundström, S., Chang, Z., Kerekes, N., Gumpert, C.H., Råstam, M., Gillberg, C., … Anckarsäter, H. (2011). Autistic-like traits and their association with mental health problems in two nationwide twin cohorts of children and adults. Psychological Medicine, 41, 2423-2433.

Halleröd, S.L., Larson, T., Ståhlberg, O., Carlström, E., Gillberg, C., Anckarsäter, H., … Gillberg, C. (2010). The Autism--Tics, AD/HD and other Comorbidities (A-TAC) telephone interview: convergence with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 64, 218-224.

Larson, T., Anckarsäter, H., Gillberg, C., Ståhlberg, O., Carlström, E., Kadesjö, B., … Gillberg, C. (2010). The autism--tics, AD/HD and other comorbidities inventory (A-TAC): further validation of a telephone interview for epidemiological research. BMC Psychiatry, 10, 1.
Lichtenstein, P., Carlström, E., Råstam, M., Gillberg, C., & Anckarsäter, H. (2010). The genetics of autism spectrum disorders and related neuropsychiatric disorders in childhood. American Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 1357-1363.

Lundström, S., Haworth, C.M., Carlström, E., Gillberg, C., Mill, J., Råstam, M., … Reichenberg, A. (2010). Trajectories leading to autism spectrum disorders are affected by paternal age: findings from two nationally representative twin studies. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51, 850-856.

Hansson, S.L., Svanström Rojvall, A., Råstam, M., Gillberg, I.C., Gillberg, C., & Anckarsäter, H. (2005). Psychiatric telephone interview with parents for screening of childhood autism - tics, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and other comorbidities (A-TAC): preliminary reliability and validity. British Journal of Psychiatry, 187, 262-267.





Page Manager: Anna Spyrou|Last update: 8/23/2019

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